By: Murtadha Ma'ash

Some of history students see that the process of development and advancement is done through distinguished dynamic round, where the human conditions represent a special challenge that will motivate his will and reactions, whether successful or futile.

When the reaction is positive, the process of development and advancement will be achieved, where Toynbee believes that: "The development shall be strongly special that will lead to positive reaction which will incite new challenge with new positive results and so on… till waiting the collapse".

The collapse starts when the individual or the society will be unresponsive and will not be practically affected by its results, where he (it) is governed in a state of indifference, or negatively responds where the reaction is directing towards regression or stalemate.

Toynbee adds: " The disintegration shall be aggressively distinctive that will have unsuccessful reaction which will incite another move to result in a new fiasco and so on…. Waiting decay.

When nations start developing and growing, they are positively responding to the challenges, but when they negatively respond to the challenges through violent actions to face the new factors, they shall shut down and close their eyes to the movement of development and live in a state of backwardness and backing down.

If we do not read the challenges that face the nation carefully and consciously, we will be unable to discover the priorities and never know the deepness of the problem.

Therefore, we will remain on the margin and will be occupied with the formalities and trying to rebuild what is fallen in the movement of history.

The importation of western technologies and the dissemination of the advanced commodities do not represent a real growth as much as negligence of the reality of the advancement and consuming the products of other civilizations, because the advancement is not material matters as much it is psychological, ethical and social reasons.

If we are able to discover the challenges that face us and concentrate on them in our conscious reaction, we will be able to start the first step in our new move towards the modern history.

Out of these challenges are:

Firstly: The decay of the political structure

The political structure is the general framework that other dimensions can move within. If the structure is sound, all the movements on all directions shall be correctly moving; otherwise we will encounter the weakness of most of the actions and activities.

Thus, the civilizational reform is closely connected with the reform of the political structure.

The reality of the nation manifests the decay in the political structure, weakness in establishments, hazy formations, the control of tyranny and repression in practices and the spread of corruption and bureaucracy within its components, that will all lead to total disability in rebuilding and development, thus making a crack between it and the society.

When the freedom is absent from the society, the Man cannot practice his instinct and formative function in life, thus becoming a petrified entity.

When Man is not free and cannot think, he will lose his real existence. Therefore, tyranny and usurping freedom mean terminating the dynamics of the human being in life. The movement of history and reasons for advancement depend on the freedom of the Man and his ability for thinking and creativity.

This challenge incites us to reform the political structure and find an entity that is based on freedom, thought and reason.

Secondly: Disintegration of the social structure

The society is formed and delineated through the social coherence among its groups and individuals. This is achieved through the existence of establishments that unite the individuals and peacefully organize the social move. But when the establishments decay and lose their effectiveness and effects, as well as unable to absorb the needs of the individuals or the attempts to control it through unilateral actions, partisanship and intolerance, they will use the violent and unethical methods with other establishments, so the contradictions within the society shall be exposed , as well as the disunity among the groups and bloody conflicts, in some cases.

When the real pluralism is absent in the real establishments that connect the individuals in organized framework, this will lead to the absence of the social responsibility and the spread of chaos and irresponsibility towards others.

The existence of the society as developed and advanced necessitates the availability of active establishments that will achieve complete social merging for the individuals within the framework that will preserve the freedom of all and organizing the private interests within the outlines of the public ones.

Through this, the social unity and structural coherence are achieved, which shall be a challenge that will move within us the abilities of thoughts and change for rebuilding the real establishments.

Thirdly: The collapse of the economic situations

When we do not have a political system that can absorb all the social segments within the framework of freedom and pluralism and there are no active productive establishments, the economic situations shall be worsened day by day and the productivity to meet the needs of consumption will be reduced, thus the unemployment and crime shall spread.

The economy is a movement that basically depends on the existence of the responsible freedoms and multiple establishments.

The economy is a human product that is originated from thoughts, creativity and human activeness, not only material elements. The real capital in economy is the human mind and creativeness.

Thus, without the presence of economic freedom and the loss of the independent establishment, monopoly and economic corruption will prevail, as well as the absence of economic security and suppression of the economic activities that will lead to the fleeing of the capitals to other countries.

This economic decline will lead to not only the destruction of the social strata, dissemination of poverty, illness and ignorance, but will result in brain drainage to rich countries looking for freedom, security and future.

With this difficult challenge, how shall we face the dangers of globalization and the change of the society to consumptive unable to produce.

Fourthly: The decline of ethics

No doubt that the decline in the basic political, social and economic structures will lead to spreading frustration, despair and fatalism that will result in ethical deterioration, spread of corruption and the emergence of ethical diseases, like hypocrisy, gossip and falsely charging others.

Fifthly: Spread of violence

No doubt that the dangerous challenges will incite strong reactions that may contain, sometimes, negative and violent aspects.

This is the most dangerous of the challenges, because violent reactions will create a flooding series of other negative and emotional reactions that will close all the doors before other solutions, as well consuming all positive energies.

The response towards the challenges needs insight, wisdom, calmness which will provide suitable atmosphere for sound and mature thinking.

Sixthly: Control of mind's inactivity

With the loss of freedom and the spread of despair, non-existence of active establishments, physical violence and thoughts' terrorism, the human mind will be inactive and unable for creation and creativity and shall be controlled by inactiveness and accepting the invading thoughts without any discrimination.

Thus, the inactiveness, imitation and shutting down of the thoughts will prevail.

If the bases of the advancement is grounded on flexible thought, renewable rationalism and creativity, this challenge forces us to get out of the closed circles and utilize the blessings of the mind and the reason.

There are difficult challenges facing us, so either we surrender and depart from the reasons of advancement and accept the slavery where the calamities shall befall upon us and we will be lost as the people of Israel did.

In our Holy Qur'an, it is written: [ Allah ] said, "Then indeed, it is forbidden to them for forty years [in which] they will wander throughout the land. So do not grieve over the defiantly disobedient people." (Al-Ma'eda, 26).

So, neglecting the directives of God will increase the aspects of backwardness, loss and misery, as said in our Holy Qur’an: And whoever turns away from My remembrance - indeed, he will have a depressed life, and We will gather him on the Day of Resurrection blind." (Taha, 124).

He will say, "My Lord, why have you raised me blind while I was [once] seeing?" (Taha, 125).

[Allah] will say, "Thus did Our signs come to you, and you forgot them; and thus will you this Day be forgotten." (Taha, 126)

Therefore, backwardness will increase the loss and will lead to doctrinal, ethical and social deviation, as said in Holy Qur'an: And when they deviated, Allah caused their hearts to deviate. Moreover, Allah does not guide the defiantly disobedient people. (As'saf, 5).